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链条功率选用 SELECTION OF CHAIN DRIVE POWER

文章出处:http://www.szhltong.com发表时间:2021/5/11 16:38:20

《滚子链传动选择指导》(GB/T 18150—2006 / ISO 10823:2004)标准已经公布。标准规定考虑链条实际传递功率时,应对主动链轮所传递的功率(即输入功率)进行修正。

实际传递功率(修正功率)=输入功率×工况系数×齿数系数工况系数见下表所列, 齿数系数=(19/Zs)1.08 (Zs—小链轮齿数)

The standard of "Guidelines for the Selection of Roller Chain Drives"(GB/T 18150-2006 / ISO 10823:2004) had been issued. If you try to calculate the actual transmission power of chain, you must consider revising the transmission power of driving sprocket (input power).

Actual power(Corrected power)=input power×service factor× teeth factor Service factor is listed in the following table.

Teeth factor = (19/Zs)1.08 (Zs—tooth number of the small sprocket)

 

世界各国历史悠久的链条工厂都制定有自己的链传动功率曲线和功率图。GB/T 18150—2006 / ISO10823:2004 标准也建立了特定条件下的功率曲线图,选择链条传动功率或由传动功率选择链条,前提是已知小链轮齿数和转速,链条实际传递的功率在功率曲线图的额定功率范围内,所选择的链条才是合适的。
现以工农十二型手扶拖拉机传动部分和旋耕部分的传递功率,验算链条选择是否合理。
The chain factories with long history in the world have their own chain transmission power rating graph and power diagram. We can refer to the GB/T 18150-2006 / ISO 10823:2004 standard selecting the drive power or selecting chain according to the drive power, the condition is that we should know the tooth number of the small sprocket and its speed. Only if the actual power is within the range of rating power of the power rating graph, the selected chain is suitable.
Now we use the transmission part in walking tractor and the transmission power in rotary tillage to proof whether the chain selection is correct.
1. 传动部分
小链轮转速ns=1351 转/ 分 小链轮齿数Zs=14 经修正后的实际传递功率=10.944 马力=8.16 千瓦由B 系列滚子链功率曲线得知选择08B-2 滚子链是合适的。
Chain drive part
Small sprocket speed ns=1351 Tooth number of small sprocket Zs=14
Actual power (Corrected power)=10.944hp=8.16kW
From B series horsepower rating graph, you will find selected 08B-2 chain is suitable.

2. 旋耕部分
小链轮转速ns=199 转/ 分 小链轮齿数Zs=13 经修正后的实际传递功率=9.888 马力=7.37 千瓦由A 系列滚子链功率曲线得知选择12A-2 滚子链是不合适的选型偏小正确选用应采用16A-1 滚子链或60H-2 重载型滚子链。
Rotary tillage chain part
Small sprocket speed ns=199 Tooth number of small sprocket Zs=13
Actual power (Corrected power)=9.888hp=7.37kW
From A series horsepower rating graph, you will find selected 12A-2 chain is unsuitable. You should choose 16A-1 or 60H-2 heavy duty roller chain instead of 12A-2.

注:多排链的额定功率可由单排链的额定功率乘以排数系数得到。
Note: The rating power of multiple strand chain can be obtained by multiplying the strand factor by the rating
power of single strand chain.

 

本功率曲线图的特定条件主要是:        The main characteristics of this power graph are as follows

△小链轮齿数为19;                             For drive Zs=19

△链条长度为120个节距;                     Chain length: 120 pitches

△传动比从1 : 3到3 : 1;                       Transmission ratio: 1 : 3 to 3 : 1
△链传动的预期使用寿命为15000小时。  Service life of chain: 15000 hours

注:多排链的额定功率可由单排链的额定功率乘以排数系数得到。
Note: The rating power of multiple strand chain can be obtained by multiplying the strand factor by the rating
power of single strand chain.

 

本功率曲线图的特定条件主要是:             The main characteristics of this power graph are as follows
△小链轮齿数为19;                                  For drive Zs=19
△链条长度为120个节距;                          Chain length: 120 pitches
△传动比从1 : 3到3 : 1;                            Transmission ratio: 1 : 3 to 3 : 1
△链传动的预期使用寿命为15000小时。       Service life of chain: 15000 hours

 

注:多排链的额定功率可由单排链的额定功率乘以排数系数得到。
Note: The rating power of multiple strand chain can be obtained by multiplying the strand factor by the rating
power of single strand chain.

 

■ 链传动的润滑   Lubrication
运行在链轮上的链条由于销轴处铰链的相对回转而产生磨损。因此有效的润滑就显得至关重要,其不仅可以有效降低磨损且能降低功率损耗和噪音。
Wear is mainly caused by bearing pressure, angle-sliding movements of the pins and rotation of the rollers etc..
Effective lubrication of the chain hinges is utmost important for reducing wear, power loss and noise etc.
effectively.

Curve 1: Without lubrication. Chain would be worn out and destroyed within a very short time.
Curve 2: Optimum initial lubrication only. High wear would occur within a short time after the lubricant has been used up.
Curve 3: Manual lubrication. Intermittent dry rub frequently occurs, especially when regular periodical relubrication is not
well implemented.
Curve 4: Incorrect lubrication. Uneven chain wear results from incorrect lubrication.
Curve 5: Correct lubrication. The right lubrication is the utmost important to obtain a optimum service life.

■ 润滑和有效性
Lubrication and efficiency

当摩擦副表面变色时表明润滑已失效,在此之前应进行再次润滑。
具体的润滑失效间隔时间应依据特定的工况和运行条件进行试验测定。
Relubrication shall be done before discoloration of the rub surface which indicates the lubrication failure of the former lubrication.The specific lubrication intervals shall be determined by tests based on specific conditions and running conditions.

 

■ 润滑剂
Lubricant


 

 

润滑剂的选择首先取决于润滑方式
First of all, the selection of an appropriate lubricant depends on the type of lubrication.

 

如图所示,低粘度的矿物油特别适合链传动
Just as the right diagram shows, low viscosity
mineral oils are particularly suitable for chain drives.

 

 

 

 

 

推荐的不同工作温度下的润滑剂应具备的粘度
Recommended viscosity

若使用温度更高(如炉箱链)或使用环境很恶劣、泥浆四溅等开式或重载低速链传动时,二硫化物(MoS2,WS2)或硒化物(MoSe2,WSe2)无论是用作添加剂还是直接喷润都能提高润滑性能。
低粘度或滴点在70℃左右的润滑脂同样适用于人工润滑。在某些特殊的场合使用液化的润滑脂进行喷润。不稳定的物质挥发完后即可开始工作。
无论采用何种润滑剂和润滑方式,最重要的问题是使润滑剂能及时充分均匀的分布到构成摩擦副的链节铰链处的间隙中(销轴- 套筒之间,套筒- 滚子之间)。

For higher temperatures (e.g. furnace chains) or severe operating conditions, mud spattering open-type etc. or heavy-duty low speed chains, graphite or molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) applied either as additive or spray will improve lubrication performance.
Low-viscosity or the grease products with a drop point of 70°C are also suitable for manual lubrication. Liquidized grease may be sprayed on the chains in special conditions and chains can start running immediately after the evaporation of the volatile carrier substance.
No matter which kind of lubricants and lubrication methods choosed, the most important issue is to ensure the lubricant flow into evenly (between pin and bush, between bush and roller).

■ 润滑方式选择
Selection of lubrication method
常见的润滑方式有以下5种:
Normally, there are five lubrication methods as below:

 

1. 人工润滑  Manual lubrication
用刷子或油壶定期在链条松边内外链板间隙处加油。这种方式可靠性不高,因此仅适用于非经常工作的链条或低速二级传动中。至少应每天充分润滑一次(若条件允许,应每隔8 小时注油一次),应尽可能避免产生润滑剂的变色现象。

This type of lubrication by means of oil can and brush, which adding lubricant into the gap between outer and inner link plate of chain loose side periodically is not very safe and therefore this type lubrication only suitable for those chains with occasional operation or for those secondary drives and low chain speeds. Sufficient lubrication should take place at least once a day (if possible once every eight running hours). Lubricant colouration should be avoided as far as possible.

2. 滴油润滑
用油芯加油器,针阀式注油杯或滴油油杯加油,这种方式仅适用于低轴压比的传动,应尽可能避免产生润滑剂的变色现象。
Drip lubrication by means of wick oilers, needle oilers or drip oilers is only suitable for low bearing pressure drives. Lubricant colouration should be avoided as far as possible.

3. 油池润滑(亦称油浴润滑)
在一个大小合适的链箱中(使用过的已磨损伸长的链条不应能撞击到箱边)拥有足够的润滑油以使链板边至滚子或套筒处能浸入,但浸入不宜过浅或过深。浸入过浅则润滑不可靠;浸入过深则油易发热氧化变质且搅油损失大。
There is just enough oil in a proper chain box for preventing the worn and elongated chain knocking against the casing wall to allow the chain plates to submerge into the bath up to the rollers or the bushings respectively. But immersion should not be too deep or too shallow .Too shallow immersion lubrication is not reliable. Too deep immersion may cause the oil to heat up and lead to untimely oxidation of the oil.

4. 油环润滑(亦称飞溅润滑)
链条运行在油面上方。一个能浸入到油中约12.7mm ~ 25.4mm 的甩油盘利用离心力将油飞溅起来并利用箱体上的集油装置持续不断的导流到链条上。甩油盘的圆周速度应大于3m/s,一般不超过12.5m/s,最大不应超过40m/s。当链条宽度超过127mm时,应在链轮两侧都装甩油盘。

With this type of lubrication, the chain operates above oil level. A disk submerging into the lower oil level, the depth is about 12.7mm-25.4mm, Peripheral velocity between min. 3m/s and max. 40m/s, normally not bigger than 12.5m/s, centrifuges oil against the casing walls from where it continuously runs down onto the chain via drip rails. The disk should be mounted on both sides of sprocket when the chain width above 127mm.

5. 强制润滑(亦称压力润滑)
此润滑方式适用于高速重载型传动。通过油泵和注油管强制供油润滑并起到循环冷却链条的效果。喷油嘴应布置在链条与链轮的啮入处且数目应比链条排数多一个以使其对准每列链板的间隙处。

This type of lubrication is suitable for high-speed and heavy-duty type drives. Force feed lubrication is carried out to realize the circulating cooling of chains by means of oil pump and oil feeding pipe .The spray nozzles should be situated near the gearing places of chain and sprocket, and the nozzle number should be one more than the chain strands number to make them aim at the gap of each row link plate.